Trial by combat Ordeal by combat took place between two people in a dispute. They, or, under certain conditions, a designated "champion" acting on their behalf, would fight, and the loser of the fight or the party represented by the losing champion was deemed guilty or liable. By fire[ edit ] After being accused of adultery Cunigunde of Luxembourg proved her innocence by walking over red-hot ploughshares. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Why does this happen? How can smart people take up positions that defy any reasonable logic? So if nothing else this essay serves as a kind of personal therapy session. Majoring in logic is not the kind of thing that makes people want to talk to you at parties, or read your essays.
But one thing I did learn after years of studying advanced logic theory is that proficiency in argument can easily be used to overpower others, even when you are dead wrong. If you Essays on judgement a few tricks of logic and debate, you can refute the obvious, and defend the ridiculous.
Opportunities for this are rare: It can be easier for smart people who have a habit of defending bad ideas to change jobs, spouses, or cities rather than honestly examine what is at the core of their psyche and often, their misery.
Short of obtaining a degree in logic, or studying the nuances of debate, remember this one simple rule for defusing those who are skilled at defending bad ideas: Simply because they cannot be proven wrong, does not make them right.
Most of the tricks of logic and debate refute questions and attacks, but fail to establish any true justification for a given idea. Death by homogeny The second stop on our tour of commonly defended bad ideas is the seemingly friendly notion of communal thinking.
The power of peer pressure is that it works on our psychology, not our intellect. As social animals we are heavily influenced by how the people around us behave, and the quality of our own internal decision making varies widely depending on the environment we currently are in.
Try to write a haiku poem while standing in an elevator with 15 opera singers screaming 15 different operas, in 15 different languages, in falsetto, directly at you vs.
That said, the more homogeneous a group of people are in their thinking, the narrower the range of ideas that the group will openly consider. Some teams of people look to focus groups, consultancies, and research methods to bring in outside ideas, but this rarely improves the quality of thinking in the group itself.
Those outside ideas, however bold or original, are at the mercy of the diversity of thought within the group itself.
Focus groups or other outside sources of information can not give a team, or its leaders, a soul.
A bland homogeneous team of people has no real opinions, because it consists of people with same backgrounds, outlooks, and experiences who will only feel comfortable discussing the safe ideas that fit into those constraints.
If you want your smart people to be as smart as possible, seek a diversity of ideas. Find people with different experiences, opinions, backgrounds, weights, heights, races, facial hair styles, colors, past-times, favorite items of clothing, philosophies, and beliefs.
Unify them around the results you want, not the means or approaches they are expected to use. On your own, avoid homogenous books, films, music, food, sex, media and people.
Be in the moment and be open to it.Materials for the Construction of Shakespeare's Morals, the Stoic Legacy to the Renaissance Major Ethical Authorities. Indexed According to Virtues, Vices, and Characters from the Plays, as well as Topics in Swift, Pope, and Wordsworth.
Books: Cicero's De Officiis, Seneca's Moral Essays and Moral Epistles, Plutarch's Lives, Montaigne's Essays. Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience.
The test was one of life or death, and the proof of innocence was survival. In some cases, the accused was considered innocent if they escaped injury or if their injuries healed. ASCAP & BMI -- Protectors of Artists or Shadowy Thieves?
By Harvey Reid attheheels.com NOTE: I first wrote this article in when I became intrigued with the complexity of the music licensing system, and to help educate those who are affected by ASCAP, BMI and SESAC. Selfiecity investigates selfies using a mix of theoretic, artistic and quantitative methods.
of or relating to critics or criticism: critical essays. providing textual variants, proposed emendations, etc.: a critical edition of Chaucer. pertaining to or of the nature of a crisis: a critical shortage of food. of decisive importance with respect to the outcome; crucial: a critical moment. of essential importance; indispensable: a critical ingredient. These essays are not intended to replace library research. They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you. To take one of these essays, copy it, and to pass Chaucer's Adherence to the "Three Estates" in the General Prologue. These essays are not intended to replace library research. They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you. To take one of these essays, copy it, and to pass Chaucer's Adherence to the "Three Estates" in the General Prologue.
We present our findings about the demographics of people taking selfies, their poses and expressions.; Rich media visualizations assemble thousands of photos to reveal interesting attheheels.com interactive selfiexploratory allows you to navigate the whole set of photos. of or relating to critics or criticism: critical essays.
providing textual variants, proposed emendations, etc.: a critical edition of Chaucer. pertaining to or of the nature of a crisis: a critical shortage of food.
of decisive importance with respect to the outcome; crucial: a critical moment. of essential importance; indispensable: a critical ingredient.
Psychosexual development; Psychosocial development (Erikson) Unconscious; Preconscious; Consciousness; Psychic apparatus; Id, ego and super-ego; Libido; Drive.